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"Here comes the sun" - Flower genome

"The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution"

Hélène Badouin, Jérôme Gouzy, Christopher J. Grassa, Florent Murat, S. Evan Staton, Ludovic Cottret, Christine Lelandais-Brière, Gregory L. Owens, Sébastien Carrère, Baptiste Mayjonade, Ludovic Legrand, Navdeep Gill, Nolan C. Kane, John E. Bowers, Sariel Hubner, Arnaud Bellec, Aurélie Bérard, Hélène Bergès, Nicolas Blanchet, Marie-Claude Boniface, Dominique Brunel, Olivier Catrice, Nadia Chaidir, Clotilde Claudel, Cécile Donnadieu et al.

Nature (2017) - Published online : 22 May 2017 - doi:10.1038/nature22380

 

Figure 1 : The sunflower genome assembly allows integration of diversity, genetics and expression data.

 

 

The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought.

Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species.

Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly.

Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago.

An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks.

We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years.

This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.

 

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